Anatomy of the hair

Each hair grows separately from a bulb located in a hair follicle (follicle), which is located in the lower layer of the scalp. Here is the entire "control panel" of the life of hair - blood vessels (capillaries), pigment cells, elastic collagen fibers, muscles, sensory ends, sweat and sebaceous glands. All of them fulfill their tasks. For example, muscle fibers lift hair, that is called, on end. So they work, when a person experiences strong emotional upheavals, or react to cold - are reduced. In this case, thanks to the sebaceous glands, fat is secreted to protect the hair from hypothermia.

Nutrients are supplied to the bulb through the capillaries, ensuring the vital activity of the hair, its growth. In the bulb the process of multiplication of cells constantly takes place, which presses on the hair shaft and pushes it outward, onto the surface of the skin. If the hair is cut and through the microscope look at the cross section, you can see three layers - the outer layer, the so-called cuticle, the cortex and the core (soft medulla). The function of the outer layer is to protect the hair from the adverse effects of the environment. Cuticle is a thin, flat, keratinized cells, adjacent to each other like fish scales. By acting on these cells, you can return the hair elasticity and elasticity. The more complete the scaly layer, the denser the cells adhere to each other, the more shine in the hair. By the way, about the brilliance: the darker the hair, the more they shine. And when comparing straight and curly hair, the advantage of shine in straight lines.

The cortical layer, consisting of elongated cells and air bubbles, is responsible for the elasticity and strength of the hair. This layer contains melanin, a pigment that determines the color of the hair at birth. And the more it is, the darker the hair. With a large number of air bubbles, the hair is lighter. The thickness of the cortical layer determines the strength and elasticity of the hair. Many procedures, the purpose of which is to impregnate hair with beneficial substances, imply the impact on this layer.

The brain substance of the core layer consists of loose cells, between which are air and liquid. In thin hair, the brain layer can be found only at the root.

The hair consists of one important component - the protein keratin, containing sulfur and nitrogen and responsible for the keratinization of cells.

The combination of melanin and keratin determines the elasticity, strength, color and other properties of the individual's hair.

The transverse section of the hair can have a different appearance: round, oblate and in the form of a kidney. From the shape of the cross-section depends on the curl, just waviness or straightness of the hair. Curly hair has a kidney-shaped cut.

The thickness of the hair is determined by color. Blond hair thin, and darker thicker. The thickest hair - the red. But even such hair in old age becomes thinner.

For information: the hair in the chemical sense consists of oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur and hydrogen, but most of all it contains oxygen. And more recently, scientists in their studies of hair growth found that cells do not form in the hair follicle, as stated earlier, but in the thickening of the hair at the surface of the skin.

The rate of hair growth per day is 0.35 0.40 mm. On average, for a month the hair is increased by 1-1.5 cm. For a person's life, the hair goes through 25 complete growth cycles. As you grow in the hair, inevitable changes occur. For example, with age, pigment cells are depleted. And the hair turns gray. The external environment destroys the horny layer of the skin, in which the water balance is disturbed, which causes dry skin, loss of elasticity.

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